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On 12/3/2021 at 19:09, Madiel dice:

Pessima versione :mda:

Non ne ho altre :D (e a questa sono legato, perché regalo di una mia cara amica)

18 ore fa, Madiel dice:

Cosa curiosa, stasera stavo giusto occupandomi di alcune questioni di Alban Berg: chissà che fine ha fatto la figlia della colpa, Albine, nata quando il giovane e focoso compositore era alle prime esperienze :doh:

 

Albine Wittula, figlia di Alban Berg e Marie Scheuchl, nata nel 1902 e morta nel 1954

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Berg-3647

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1 ora fa, il viandante del sud dice:

Non ne ho altre :D (e a questa sono legato, perché regalo di una mia cara amica)

Albine Wittula, figlia di Alban Berg e Marie Scheuchl, nata nel 1902 e morta nel 1954

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Berg-3647

Ero già informato sugli estremi anagrafici, on line c'è anche la fotografia della bimba che Berg teneva sempre con sé (è identica al padre). Però non si sa nulla di preciso sulla sua vita. E' morta giovane.

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2 ore fa, Madiel dice:

Ero già informato sugli estremi anagrafici, on line c'è anche la fotografia della bimba che Berg teneva sempre con sé (è identica al padre). Però non si sa nulla di preciso sulla sua vita. E' morta giovane.

Incuriosito, ho trovato su google dei riferimenti ad alcuni articoli comparsi su riviste tedesche. Ovviamente materiale di reperibilità ardua. Ce ne sarebbe anche uno che riprende due lettere di una nipote che ricostruisce i dati biografici della zia Albine.

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31 minuti fa, giobar dice:

Incuriosito, ho trovato su google dei riferimenti ad alcuni articoli comparsi su riviste tedesche. Ovviamente materiale di reperibilità ardua. Ce ne sarebbe anche uno che riprende due lettere di una nipote che ricostruisce i dati biografici della zia Albine.

Molto interessante! Mi premeva sapere la professione, eventuale matrimonio e discendenti, ma credo che su questi ultimi due punti ci sia poco da sapere perché ho l'impressione da quel che ho trovato on line che non abbia avuto figli. La madre era una servotta di casa, verosimile che abbia seguito le orme materne. E ho l'impressione che non abbia avuto neanche chiara la figura del grande padre. La povera Albine mi fa un po' pena, nascosta sotto il tappeto dalla famiglia per vergogna sociale :cry:

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15 minuti fa, Madiel dice:

Molto interessante! Mi premeva sapere la professione, eventuale matrimonio e discendenti, ma credo che su questi ultimi due punti ci sia poco da sapere perché ho l'impressione da quel che ho trovato on line che non abbia avuto figli. La madre era una servotta di casa, verosimile che abbia seguito le orme materne. E ho l'impressione che non abbia avuto neanche chiara la figura del grande padre. La povera Albine mi fa un po' pena, nascosta sotto il tappeto dalla famiglia per vergogna sociale :cry:

https://www.jstor.org/stable/1004445?refreqid=excelsior%3A2e540aa09fb916558a890868e42a3586  : pare che sia possibile accedere con un account gratuito che permette di leggere un centinaio di articoli al mese. Poi ci provo

https://books.google.it/books?id=JrwcEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA458&lpg=PA458&dq=albine+wittula&source=bl&ots=FommAuAKJB&sig=ACfU3U0g114qu6Pi9wtAtYA_8VjuACnz-Q&hl=it&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVxOOhmK7vAhVE3KQKHRVSC5A4ChDoATAHegQIBhAD#v=onepage&q=albine wittula&f=false

 

https://books.google.it/books?id=BCpKDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT342&lpg=PT342&dq=albine+wittula&source=bl&ots=cqYnSzlxgA&sig=ACfU3U1kS_dZet3oZSJlFcHGwTLK4Fka_g&hl=it&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVxOOhmK7vAhVE3KQKHRVSC5A4ChDoATAJegQIBRAD#v=onepage&q=albine wittula&f=false

 

 

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Johann Adolf HASSE
Messa in sol minore "Ultima"

Dagmar Schellenberger - Axel Kohler
Ralph Eschrig - Egbert Junghanns
Thuringischer Akademischer Singkreis
Virtuosi Saxoniae
Ludwig Guttler

"Ultima" perché è proprio l'ultima opera composta da Hasse nel 1783, ritiratosi a Venezia ormai 84enne e prossimo alla morte (avvenuta nello stesso anno). Un'opera imponente di oltre un'ora, con la struttura canonica arricchita da un mottetto (significativamente intitolato "Ad te levavi animam meam") fra il Credo e il Sanctus, in cui Hasse prende quasi le distanze dalla sua carriera di operista per rifugiarsi nella riflessione e nell'invocazione che in molti momenti si fanno drammatiche e appassionate. Non è un requiem ma c'è, assai presente, il confronto dell'autore col mistero della morte e dell'aldilà. Straordinaria anche per la dimostrazione di impegno e di lucidità da parte di un uomo di età così avanzata. Impressionante.

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28 minuti fa, Madiel dice:

Grazie, sei preziosissimo! :o

qui sotto copio-incollo dall'articolo dell'ottimo @giobar , se vuoi ti mando il pdf con foto bibliografia ecc.

Spoiler

WRITERS on Alban Berg devote only a line or two, if at all, to his natural daughter, Albine, and her mother, Marie Scheuchl. Among recent biographical discussions, for example, Douglas Jarman does not even mention Albine by name,' while in a fuller investigation by David Schroeder the two are mentioned only in pass- ing.2 I believe, however, that both Albine and Marie were of prime importance to Berg's creative work. At the age of seventeen, Alban Berg fathered an illegitimate daughter, Albine, born on 4 December 1902.3 The conception would have occurred, therefore, in March 1902, shortly after Berg's birthday, and probably coincided with the Easter holiday. Albine's mother was a kitchen maid, Marie Scheuchl, who worked at the 'Berg- hof', the Berg family's summer residence by the Ossiachersee in Carinthia. There is a photograph, dated early 1900, of Marie serving the Berg family at table, along with Alban's father, Konrad Berg, who died later that year.4 In accounts so far pub- lished it is assumed that she was near Alban's own age. In fact, she was thirty-two years old, some fifteen years his senior and thus nearly twice his age. Proof of this lies on her gravestone in the Sudwestfriedhof, Hervicusgasse 44, Vienna 12. Its inscription indicates that she was born in 1870 and died in 1945 (fig.l). My communications with her relative Frau Helga Wittula reveal that Marie was of simple stock, very caring and always open to helping others.5 From Berg's correspondence to her, she also appears to have known her social place and therefore kept knowledge of the pregnancy to herself until late, apparently never even troubling Berg. Marie had been friendly with Alban since 1900, but as he grew older the nature of the friendship changed to that of lovers. They met in his room when the family were away at concerts in the nearby town of Klagenfurt.6 It was the time of Berg's sexual awakening and although he may have had the opportunity to sample the delights of the Viennese 'susse Madel' (young women of the socially lower classes who associated with bourgeois males before higher-status marriages were embarked upon) as well as the prostitutes of Acknowledgment the Graben district of the inner city of Vienna, it I wish to thank the Wittula family seems eminently feasible that his encounters with from Linz for their Marie represented Berg's first full intimacy with a kind assistance. female. Smaragda and Charly Berg, Alban's sister and brother, were said to be the only members of his family who knew about the pregnancy,7 but his mother, Johanna Berg, almost certainly knew of the goings-on between the pair and closed her eyes to it. A widow since 1900, she would no doubt have welcomed the bourgeois manners of the day which allowed initiation of sons by servant girls. Janet Naude believes that the birth of the child affected Berg for the rest of his life,8 and there exists in print a letter from Berg to Marie out- lining the emotional turbulence caused by the pregnancy.9 Couched in the typical Bergian camouflage of an anonymous postcard addressed to a post office number, it is a document of dramatic importance, for it shows the burgeoning literary talent of the young composer encap- sulated in the narcissism and naivety of youth. The text, conveying a strong sensitivity to Marie's plight coupled with a need to comply with the mores of his own class, testifies to Berg's first leanings towards the multi-layered attitude to life that later informed the composition of his music. Interestingly, though, it is not until a postscript discussing judicial and medical matters that he acknowledges an ongoing involvement with his child. Berg also acknowledges in the letter the fact that when Marie's condition became obvious she tried to cover it up and incurred great physical discomfort, thereby hoping no doubt to end her adversity in a miscarriage. She was eventually confined away from the 'Berghof' in her family home in Linz, and then hospitalised in Vienna for the birth. Berg did not own up to being the father until over a year afterwards, but in a signed letter dated 8 December 1903 he did admit paternity and recognise his responsibilities towards the child.10 Frau Helga Wittula, however, empha- tically disagrees with the statement in a recent BBC Documentary on Berg that Alban assisted Marie with regular aid." According to Berg's mentor Watznauer, the love affair and the conception of Berg's child found musical expression by him quite early, in the Four Songs op.2, with 'Wo der Goldregen steht' representing a tender love song for the pair, and 'Lied des Schiffesmadels' and 'Abschied' standing for their agonising separation.l2 The child, which Berg nicknamed 'Little Bin- chen', was placed in a state orphanage between 1902 and 1906, until she was four years old. These events must have hung heavily upon his young shoulders, enough to change his attitude towards life in general and sow the seeds of his future artistry. They no doubt contributed to his belief - commonly held - that modern industrial society was eroding our humanity. Indeed, one might argue that Berg's first free attempt at love, with the servant girl Marie Scheuchl, was really his own swan-song to truth and naturalness, and that thereafter he forever chased the return of this dream. This trauma was ultimately to bear fruit in his expressionistic opera Wozzeck. Erich Kleiber, who conducted the first performance of the work at the Berlin Staatsoper in December 1925, remarked to a reporter from the Wiener Journal: 'Wozzech is written with a man's whole heart and soul. Music like that has just got to be per- formed.'13 An aquarelle, painted by Berg, of the four-year- old Albine suggests that he kept in touch with Marie and Albine.14 In 1906 Marie married Karl Manninger, a brush-maker. They managed to extricate the child from the orphanage and made a home for her. At this point, Berg offered to provide them with a fruit and vegetable business from money he had inherited, but Marie had al- ready declined any offer of help from him, financial or otherwise, and once again refused, even though the pair were in need.15 It is curious to note, however, that the Manninger family moved to Modling, the 12th District of Vienna, in 1906. At the same time, between 1905 and 1907, Berg lived at Hietzinger Haupstrasse 6, Vienna 13, next to the Park Hotel, in the house of his Aunt Julie Weidmann.16 Then, after his marriage in 1911, he resided in Hietzing, also only a few kilometres from Modling, across the Schonbrunn Palace grounds. Alban, Marie and Albine were therefore in a position to meet.l7 There does seem to be a kind of feudal aspect here, whereby Berg's first love and natural child continued to live with- in his sphere of existence, if only secretly The Manninger family, of artisan stock, were always poor, so Albine's early life was basic in style: there were no frills, such as the piano lessons which she later felt she would have loved. She was very beautiful, with dark, red-brown flowing hair, was of middle height and size, and had a pleasant voice, with only a hint of the guttural about it. By nature, she was intelligent and sensitive. The resemblance to her father ap- peared from adolescence onwards and was quite remarkable, as photographs show (fig.2). She remained an only child and, at the age of twenty, married Walter Wittula, the son of the Austrian folk-writer Anna Wittula. The couple shared a great interest in music, literature and all the arts. Walter was an Inspector on the Austrian Rail- way, and Albine worked first as a librarian in Perchtoldsdorf and then as secretary to the writer Maria Grengg in Vienna. This was very fortunate for her, because it enabled her to involve herself in the artistic matters which she had hitherto been denied and for which she had a definite leaning. At work, she moved in the milieu of the Austrian writers Wolfgang Schneiderhan, Josef Weinheber, Mirko Jelusich, Franz Karl Ginzkey and Ingeborg Teuffenbach. Privately, she painted water-colours and also had an interest in sculpture. Because of her beautiful bone structure, she sat for Hans Domenig's 'Muttergottesstatue', a Madonna and Child sculpture.18 Walter and Albine had no children of their own, and lived together in Graz and in Vienna. Mother and daughter kept in touch, as a wonder- ful photograph of them shows (fig.3). This was in the early 1940s, when Marie was in her seventies and Albine in her forties. Marie died in 1945 at the end of the War. T he first encounter between father and daughter in adulthood occurred in the mid-1920s. The account of this meeting was related by Berg's housekeeper, Anny Lenz, to Erich Alban Berg, the composer's ne- phew.19 It took place in front of the Berg residence in Hietzing, where Albine was waiting to take a picture of the composer. When he came out of his front door, she asked his permission for a photo- graph and an autograph. Berg, however, remark- ed that to give these on the street was impractical and, with his wife, Helene, being away on a 'cure', invited her into the apartment - possibly to avoid the prying eyes of neighbours. Once inside, Albine revealed her identity, after which they entered Berg's study and talked for a long time. Berg demanded from Anny Lenz the strictest discretion about the meeting, as he did not want to upset his wife. (Apparently, the composer had a characteristic way of dealing with children and young people.) Albine suddenly called him father, and they hugged each other. Anny Lenz intervened at this point to say that Berg was not given to fatherly feelings, which angered the com- poser, who told her to mind her own business and keep quiet - thus putting her in her place as a servant. (This probably explains why she recounted the story in this fashion.) Berg must have been very happy to have fathered such a beautiful girl but, on a darker note, the possibility of blackmail may well have also crossed his mind. This young lady's appearing on the scene at beginng of his fame might not only have compromised his marriage but also the develop- ment of his career. Even so, a bond developed between the two, and in the composer's personal correspondence at the Austrian National Library there are repeated notes to his daughter.20 A definite indication that Albine was also associated with Berg's inner circle may be de- duced from a photograph given to me by Helga Wittula, taken in the grounds of 'Casa Mahler', Alma Mahler-Werfel's Venetian home.21 The photograph (fig.4) was taken by her husband Walter in 1930.22 For Walter and Albine to have frequented the home of someone of such import- ance to Berg once again highlights a more intimate and progressive link between father and duaghter 

W HE N Wozzeck was premiered on 23 March 1930 at the State Opera House in Vienna, the composer ordered his pupil Julius Schloss to obtain a gallery ticket, priced two schillings, for his daughter. The content of the opera reveals a truth about the power of Nature which the composer himself feared. Its Nietzschean concept mirrors the plight of Alban's little daughter who, as innocent as the orphaned child at the end of the opera, had to live in the gruesome care of the State for the first four years of her life. I believe that feelings of guilt never left Berg, and, because of his childless marriage, were reflected in his continued interest in the feminine aesthetic es- poused by the Viennese poet Peter Altenberg. After his marriage, Marie and Albine should have become shadows, but writing Wozzeck enabled Berg to avoid normal bourgeois hypocrisy and create a means of emotional self-curing. With it, he etched mother and daughter - and the stark reality of their joint lives - forever in the annals of musical history, thus rebalancing the scales of justice to the best of his ability. This renewed, clandestine contact with his daughter arguably provided the initiative for his simultaneous association with Hanna Fuchs- Robettin. Hanna would therefore represent his forbidden paternal love and symbolise the restoration of his male pride. Further support for this notion may be found hidden between the pages of the manuscript of Lulu that the com- poser left on his desk in his Hietzing flat when he was taken to the Rudolfspital by ambulance in December 1935: a typed copy of the popular song 'Tea for two'.23 Its lyrics contain the phrase 'a boy for you and a girl for me' (note the 'girl for me'). When Berg first met her, Hanna Fuchs had daughter of between three and four years old called Dorothea, and it seems quite plausible that Berg, in the florescence of his poetic mind, would have seen this child as a reflection of his own 'Little Binchen' - who herself was four years old when he painted her picture in 1906. The Fuchs- Robettin family also enjoyed the kind of life Berg would have wanted for his own Albine. Writers such as George Perle or Mosco Carner make capital out of the alphabetical correspondences within his music to the initials of other people in his life, yet make no reference to the prevalence, throughout the final bars of each act of Wozzeck, of the notes corresponding to Albine's initials A and Eb (denoted in German by the letter S) (see for example the third and fourth flute parts in Act 3, Scene 5, bars 389-92]. Nor, do they mention the fact that Marie's 'yearning fifths' (A and E) correspond to the first and last letters of Albine's first name (see Act 1, Scene 3, bars 412-16). I N 1935, at his summer home, the Waldhaus, Berg wrote his final completed work, the Violin Concerto, and although it was dedi- cated to Manon Gropius (the daughter of Alma Mahler-Werfel) its inclusion of the Carin- thian folk-song 'Ein Vogel auf'm Zwetschgen- baum' suggests that he wished there to be a strong overt reference to Marie Scheuchl, his relationship with her, and the conception of their daughter.24 The verse alludes to 'oversleeping in Mizzi's bed'25 (Mizzi was the pet name of both Manon and Marie), so the placing of such an objet trouve into the work was more provocative than is supposed. By doing so, the composer was able to enjoy a posthumous laugh at the world - not ironic and black humoured, or heartbreaking and emotive, as previous commentators have sup- posed,26 but hearty and mirthful, intimating that sex and procreation were what really mattered and that death was just a matter of course. Berg seems to be saying that the bourgeois rules of mediocrity, order and avoidance of embarrass- ment belittle the life-force, the natural order of things, and blatantly implies through this folk- song that the best time of his life was during the youthful and carefree relationship with Marie which produced his daughter Albine; that he was never freer than in that lovemaking, after which bourgeois life came down hard on him. Ac- cording to his friend and pupil TW Adorno, 'he never really knew the bliss of sexuality as he ima- gined it',27 but with his initial experiences with Marie, one has seriously to doubt the precise na- ture of this remark. The composer's many 'love- affairs', including that with Hanna Fuchs, were thus merely manoeuvres to keep at bay his own insecurity, especially when he had to encounter the post-Wozzech world, with its expectations of more and better compositions from his own pen. The maxim that the only thing worse than not getting what you want is getting what you want surely applies here. In Berg's life, introversion, asthma and other illnesses had led the way to poetry, drama and music, but all really stood as a yearning for the joys of the initial adolescent romp with Marie. Nevertheless, his marriage to Helene Nahowski-Berg, provided a cohesiveness which he relished, because she believed in him and his greatness. At the end of his life the composer tried to rekindle this flame with his 'last love',28 the seventeen-year-old Anny Askenase29 (a similar situation to that of August Strindberg and his love at the end of his life for his seventeen-year- old protege of the theatre Fanny Falkner). The deepest affection emerges in his music, however, for it is notable that the 'Carinthian folk-song' in the Violin Concerto occurs first in the key of Bb (denoted in German by the letter B for Berg) (at I, bar 214), but on its return in Eb (S for Scheuchl) (at II, bar 201). This latter passage (at II, bar 214) resolves on to a chord of A7 - denoting Albine. OMPUTER enlargements of photo- graphs of the composer's funeral reveal Albine Wittula standing next to Hanna Fuchs in the front row of the mourners.30 Helene Berg was absent due to her collapsed state. The distressing figure of the burial brought to the fore the meeting between Albine and Helene. Up until this time, the two had been separated by the circumstance of Alban Berg, the composer, in the guise of a diplomat. Following the funeral on the 28 December a meeting took place at the Berg flat in Hietzing: those present were Ignaz Franzoy, Frau Berg's general assistant, the Berg widow and Frau Albine Wittula. Either through distress or disinclination, or a mixture of both, Helene remained relatively unresponsive and aloof from her husband's natural daughter. She asked Albine if she wanted money; the ans- wer was negative. Albine, however, asked if Frau Berg had looked after her father properly, here alluding to the surprise everyone felt at the com- poser's early death (Soma Morgenstern discusses this fact from his viewpoint in the 'Anhang' of his memoirs).31 The meeting terminated with Ignaz Franzoy showing the young lady to the door.32 From then onwards, Alban Berg's natural daugh- ter remained unconnected to him; her relatives maintain she was badly treated.33 There may have been a more personal reason for Helene Berg's distancing of Albine, however, for they both had something in common. Both were illegitimate. Helene Berg was the illegitimate daughter of the Emperor Franz Josef,34 a fact she found difficult to accommodate into her life.35 Therefore it seems quite possible that she would not have been able to face another person so closely linked to her by the same major problem. It is interesting, too, that both women had lived for the majority of their lives only a few kilometres away from their real fathers. Helene dwelt just across the park from the Schonbrunn Palace - and Albine, whilst in Modling, lived just across the same park from Alban Berg, in Hietzing. Albine Wittula died in 1954, from lung cancer, in a rehabilitation hospital near Graz and was buried alongside her mother in the cemetery in Modling - a few kilometres from Alban and Helene's grave in the Hietzing cemetery. She was fifty-two years old, and a non-smoker36 (her lung weakness was apparently of the inherited type). Alban Berg would not have wanted his natural daughter to suffer further for his sake - that was not his way. His wife, though, believed that her duty was to focus on the promotion of her late husband's music - the harshness of this fact conveys the trauma of the times these people lived through. In the summer of 2001, the Alban Berg Stiftung (the organisation founded by the composer's widow to carry on his legacy) allowed Helga Wittula to visit Berg's Waldhaus in Carin- thia, a place of recondite beauty, which was never seen by Albine; yet it will be 2004 before they take over the care of Albine's and Marie's joint grave.37 I N his letter to Marie, Berg passionately declared the need to kiss and hold his little daughter in his arms, a need that was denied to him, and if Marie had any doubt about his love of the child, he acknowledged her as his own 'flesh and blood', his 'other self'. 'Fleisch und Blut' is the only phrase found in both Wozzeck and Lulu38 - a fact that seems in keeping with the com- poser's style and that effectively represents his emo- tion towards his daughter Albine and the nostalgie de boue he felt for his youthful days with Marie.


 

 

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4 minuti fa, Yeats dice:

qui sotto copio-incollo dall'articolo dell'ottimo @giobar , se vuoi ti mando il pdf con foto bibliografia ecc.

  Nascondi Contenuto

WRITERS on Alban Berg devote only a line or two, if at all, to his natural daughter, Albine, and her mother, Marie Scheuchl. Among recent biographical discussions, for example, Douglas Jarman does not even mention Albine by name,' while in a fuller investigation by David Schroeder the two are mentioned only in pass- ing.2 I believe, however, that both Albine and Marie were of prime importance to Berg's creative work. At the age of seventeen, Alban Berg fathered an illegitimate daughter, Albine, born on 4 December 1902.3 The conception would have occurred, therefore, in March 1902, shortly after Berg's birthday, and probably coincided with the Easter holiday. Albine's mother was a kitchen maid, Marie Scheuchl, who worked at the 'Berg- hof', the Berg family's summer residence by the Ossiachersee in Carinthia. There is a photograph, dated early 1900, of Marie serving the Berg family at table, along with Alban's father, Konrad Berg, who died later that year.4 In accounts so far pub- lished it is assumed that she was near Alban's own age. In fact, she was thirty-two years old, some fifteen years his senior and thus nearly twice his age. Proof of this lies on her gravestone in the Sudwestfriedhof, Hervicusgasse 44, Vienna 12. Its inscription indicates that she was born in 1870 and died in 1945 (fig.l). My communications with her relative Frau Helga Wittula reveal that Marie was of simple stock, very caring and always open to helping others.5 From Berg's correspondence to her, she also appears to have known her social place and therefore kept knowledge of the pregnancy to herself until late, apparently never even troubling Berg. Marie had been friendly with Alban since 1900, but as he grew older the nature of the friendship changed to that of lovers. They met in his room when the family were away at concerts in the nearby town of Klagenfurt.6 It was the time of Berg's sexual awakening and although he may have had the opportunity to sample the delights of the Viennese 'susse Madel' (young women of the socially lower classes who associated with bourgeois males before higher-status marriages were embarked upon) as well as the prostitutes of Acknowledgment the Graben district of the inner city of Vienna, it I wish to thank the Wittula family seems eminently feasible that his encounters with from Linz for their Marie represented Berg's first full intimacy with a kind assistance. female. Smaragda and Charly Berg, Alban's sister and brother, were said to be the only members of his family who knew about the pregnancy,7 but his mother, Johanna Berg, almost certainly knew of the goings-on between the pair and closed her eyes to it. A widow since 1900, she would no doubt have welcomed the bourgeois manners of the day which allowed initiation of sons by servant girls. Janet Naude believes that the birth of the child affected Berg for the rest of his life,8 and there exists in print a letter from Berg to Marie out- lining the emotional turbulence caused by the pregnancy.9 Couched in the typical Bergian camouflage of an anonymous postcard addressed to a post office number, it is a document of dramatic importance, for it shows the burgeoning literary talent of the young composer encap- sulated in the narcissism and naivety of youth. The text, conveying a strong sensitivity to Marie's plight coupled with a need to comply with the mores of his own class, testifies to Berg's first leanings towards the multi-layered attitude to life that later informed the composition of his music. Interestingly, though, it is not until a postscript discussing judicial and medical matters that he acknowledges an ongoing involvement with his child. Berg also acknowledges in the letter the fact that when Marie's condition became obvious she tried to cover it up and incurred great physical discomfort, thereby hoping no doubt to end her adversity in a miscarriage. She was eventually confined away from the 'Berghof' in her family home in Linz, and then hospitalised in Vienna for the birth. Berg did not own up to being the father until over a year afterwards, but in a signed letter dated 8 December 1903 he did admit paternity and recognise his responsibilities towards the child.10 Frau Helga Wittula, however, empha- tically disagrees with the statement in a recent BBC Documentary on Berg that Alban assisted Marie with regular aid." According to Berg's mentor Watznauer, the love affair and the conception of Berg's child found musical expression by him quite early, in the Four Songs op.2, with 'Wo der Goldregen steht' representing a tender love song for the pair, and 'Lied des Schiffesmadels' and 'Abschied' standing for their agonising separation.l2 The child, which Berg nicknamed 'Little Bin- chen', was placed in a state orphanage between 1902 and 1906, until she was four years old. These events must have hung heavily upon his young shoulders, enough to change his attitude towards life in general and sow the seeds of his future artistry. They no doubt contributed to his belief - commonly held - that modern industrial society was eroding our humanity. Indeed, one might argue that Berg's first free attempt at love, with the servant girl Marie Scheuchl, was really his own swan-song to truth and naturalness, and that thereafter he forever chased the return of this dream. This trauma was ultimately to bear fruit in his expressionistic opera Wozzeck. Erich Kleiber, who conducted the first performance of the work at the Berlin Staatsoper in December 1925, remarked to a reporter from the Wiener Journal: 'Wozzech is written with a man's whole heart and soul. Music like that has just got to be per- formed.'13 An aquarelle, painted by Berg, of the four-year- old Albine suggests that he kept in touch with Marie and Albine.14 In 1906 Marie married Karl Manninger, a brush-maker. They managed to extricate the child from the orphanage and made a home for her. At this point, Berg offered to provide them with a fruit and vegetable business from money he had inherited, but Marie had al- ready declined any offer of help from him, financial or otherwise, and once again refused, even though the pair were in need.15 It is curious to note, however, that the Manninger family moved to Modling, the 12th District of Vienna, in 1906. At the same time, between 1905 and 1907, Berg lived at Hietzinger Haupstrasse 6, Vienna 13, next to the Park Hotel, in the house of his Aunt Julie Weidmann.16 Then, after his marriage in 1911, he resided in Hietzing, also only a few kilometres from Modling, across the Schonbrunn Palace grounds. Alban, Marie and Albine were therefore in a position to meet.l7 There does seem to be a kind of feudal aspect here, whereby Berg's first love and natural child continued to live with- in his sphere of existence, if only secretly The Manninger family, of artisan stock, were always poor, so Albine's early life was basic in style: there were no frills, such as the piano lessons which she later felt she would have loved. She was very beautiful, with dark, red-brown flowing hair, was of middle height and size, and had a pleasant voice, with only a hint of the guttural about it. By nature, she was intelligent and sensitive. The resemblance to her father ap- peared from adolescence onwards and was quite remarkable, as photographs show (fig.2). She remained an only child and, at the age of twenty, married Walter Wittula, the son of the Austrian folk-writer Anna Wittula. The couple shared a great interest in music, literature and all the arts. Walter was an Inspector on the Austrian Rail- way, and Albine worked first as a librarian in Perchtoldsdorf and then as secretary to the writer Maria Grengg in Vienna. This was very fortunate for her, because it enabled her to involve herself in the artistic matters which she had hitherto been denied and for which she had a definite leaning. At work, she moved in the milieu of the Austrian writers Wolfgang Schneiderhan, Josef Weinheber, Mirko Jelusich, Franz Karl Ginzkey and Ingeborg Teuffenbach. Privately, she painted water-colours and also had an interest in sculpture. Because of her beautiful bone structure, she sat for Hans Domenig's 'Muttergottesstatue', a Madonna and Child sculpture.18 Walter and Albine had no children of their own, and lived together in Graz and in Vienna. Mother and daughter kept in touch, as a wonder- ful photograph of them shows (fig.3). This was in the early 1940s, when Marie was in her seventies and Albine in her forties. Marie died in 1945 at the end of the War. T he first encounter between father and daughter in adulthood occurred in the mid-1920s. The account of this meeting was related by Berg's housekeeper, Anny Lenz, to Erich Alban Berg, the composer's ne- phew.19 It took place in front of the Berg residence in Hietzing, where Albine was waiting to take a picture of the composer. When he came out of his front door, she asked his permission for a photo- graph and an autograph. Berg, however, remark- ed that to give these on the street was impractical and, with his wife, Helene, being away on a 'cure', invited her into the apartment - possibly to avoid the prying eyes of neighbours. Once inside, Albine revealed her identity, after which they entered Berg's study and talked for a long time. Berg demanded from Anny Lenz the strictest discretion about the meeting, as he did not want to upset his wife. (Apparently, the composer had a characteristic way of dealing with children and young people.) Albine suddenly called him father, and they hugged each other. Anny Lenz intervened at this point to say that Berg was not given to fatherly feelings, which angered the com- poser, who told her to mind her own business and keep quiet - thus putting her in her place as a servant. (This probably explains why she recounted the story in this fashion.) Berg must have been very happy to have fathered such a beautiful girl but, on a darker note, the possibility of blackmail may well have also crossed his mind. This young lady's appearing on the scene at beginng of his fame might not only have compromised his marriage but also the develop- ment of his career. Even so, a bond developed between the two, and in the composer's personal correspondence at the Austrian National Library there are repeated notes to his daughter.20 A definite indication that Albine was also associated with Berg's inner circle may be de- duced from a photograph given to me by Helga Wittula, taken in the grounds of 'Casa Mahler', Alma Mahler-Werfel's Venetian home.21 The photograph (fig.4) was taken by her husband Walter in 1930.22 For Walter and Albine to have frequented the home of someone of such import- ance to Berg once again highlights a more intimate and progressive link between father and duaghter 

W HE N Wozzeck was premiered on 23 March 1930 at the State Opera House in Vienna, the composer ordered his pupil Julius Schloss to obtain a gallery ticket, priced two schillings, for his daughter. The content of the opera reveals a truth about the power of Nature which the composer himself feared. Its Nietzschean concept mirrors the plight of Alban's little daughter who, as innocent as the orphaned child at the end of the opera, had to live in the gruesome care of the State for the first four years of her life. I believe that feelings of guilt never left Berg, and, because of his childless marriage, were reflected in his continued interest in the feminine aesthetic es- poused by the Viennese poet Peter Altenberg. After his marriage, Marie and Albine should have become shadows, but writing Wozzeck enabled Berg to avoid normal bourgeois hypocrisy and create a means of emotional self-curing. With it, he etched mother and daughter - and the stark reality of their joint lives - forever in the annals of musical history, thus rebalancing the scales of justice to the best of his ability. This renewed, clandestine contact with his daughter arguably provided the initiative for his simultaneous association with Hanna Fuchs- Robettin. Hanna would therefore represent his forbidden paternal love and symbolise the restoration of his male pride. Further support for this notion may be found hidden between the pages of the manuscript of Lulu that the com- poser left on his desk in his Hietzing flat when he was taken to the Rudolfspital by ambulance in December 1935: a typed copy of the popular song 'Tea for two'.23 Its lyrics contain the phrase 'a boy for you and a girl for me' (note the 'girl for me'). When Berg first met her, Hanna Fuchs had daughter of between three and four years old called Dorothea, and it seems quite plausible that Berg, in the florescence of his poetic mind, would have seen this child as a reflection of his own 'Little Binchen' - who herself was four years old when he painted her picture in 1906. The Fuchs- Robettin family also enjoyed the kind of life Berg would have wanted for his own Albine. Writers such as George Perle or Mosco Carner make capital out of the alphabetical correspondences within his music to the initials of other people in his life, yet make no reference to the prevalence, throughout the final bars of each act of Wozzeck, of the notes corresponding to Albine's initials A and Eb (denoted in German by the letter S) (see for example the third and fourth flute parts in Act 3, Scene 5, bars 389-92]. Nor, do they mention the fact that Marie's 'yearning fifths' (A and E) correspond to the first and last letters of Albine's first name (see Act 1, Scene 3, bars 412-16). I N 1935, at his summer home, the Waldhaus, Berg wrote his final completed work, the Violin Concerto, and although it was dedi- cated to Manon Gropius (the daughter of Alma Mahler-Werfel) its inclusion of the Carin- thian folk-song 'Ein Vogel auf'm Zwetschgen- baum' suggests that he wished there to be a strong overt reference to Marie Scheuchl, his relationship with her, and the conception of their daughter.24 The verse alludes to 'oversleeping in Mizzi's bed'25 (Mizzi was the pet name of both Manon and Marie), so the placing of such an objet trouve into the work was more provocative than is supposed. By doing so, the composer was able to enjoy a posthumous laugh at the world - not ironic and black humoured, or heartbreaking and emotive, as previous commentators have sup- posed,26 but hearty and mirthful, intimating that sex and procreation were what really mattered and that death was just a matter of course. Berg seems to be saying that the bourgeois rules of mediocrity, order and avoidance of embarrass- ment belittle the life-force, the natural order of things, and blatantly implies through this folk- song that the best time of his life was during the youthful and carefree relationship with Marie which produced his daughter Albine; that he was never freer than in that lovemaking, after which bourgeois life came down hard on him. Ac- cording to his friend and pupil TW Adorno, 'he never really knew the bliss of sexuality as he ima- gined it',27 but with his initial experiences with Marie, one has seriously to doubt the precise na- ture of this remark. The composer's many 'love- affairs', including that with Hanna Fuchs, were thus merely manoeuvres to keep at bay his own insecurity, especially when he had to encounter the post-Wozzech world, with its expectations of more and better compositions from his own pen. The maxim that the only thing worse than not getting what you want is getting what you want surely applies here. In Berg's life, introversion, asthma and other illnesses had led the way to poetry, drama and music, but all really stood as a yearning for the joys of the initial adolescent romp with Marie. Nevertheless, his marriage to Helene Nahowski-Berg, provided a cohesiveness which he relished, because she believed in him and his greatness. At the end of his life the composer tried to rekindle this flame with his 'last love',28 the seventeen-year-old Anny Askenase29 (a similar situation to that of August Strindberg and his love at the end of his life for his seventeen-year- old protege of the theatre Fanny Falkner). The deepest affection emerges in his music, however, for it is notable that the 'Carinthian folk-song' in the Violin Concerto occurs first in the key of Bb (denoted in German by the letter B for Berg) (at I, bar 214), but on its return in Eb (S for Scheuchl) (at II, bar 201). This latter passage (at II, bar 214) resolves on to a chord of A7 - denoting Albine. OMPUTER enlargements of photo- graphs of the composer's funeral reveal Albine Wittula standing next to Hanna Fuchs in the front row of the mourners.30 Helene Berg was absent due to her collapsed state. The distressing figure of the burial brought to the fore the meeting between Albine and Helene. Up until this time, the two had been separated by the circumstance of Alban Berg, the composer, in the guise of a diplomat. Following the funeral on the 28 December a meeting took place at the Berg flat in Hietzing: those present were Ignaz Franzoy, Frau Berg's general assistant, the Berg widow and Frau Albine Wittula. Either through distress or disinclination, or a mixture of both, Helene remained relatively unresponsive and aloof from her husband's natural daughter. She asked Albine if she wanted money; the ans- wer was negative. Albine, however, asked if Frau Berg had looked after her father properly, here alluding to the surprise everyone felt at the com- poser's early death (Soma Morgenstern discusses this fact from his viewpoint in the 'Anhang' of his memoirs).31 The meeting terminated with Ignaz Franzoy showing the young lady to the door.32 From then onwards, Alban Berg's natural daugh- ter remained unconnected to him; her relatives maintain she was badly treated.33 There may have been a more personal reason for Helene Berg's distancing of Albine, however, for they both had something in common. Both were illegitimate. Helene Berg was the illegitimate daughter of the Emperor Franz Josef,34 a fact she found difficult to accommodate into her life.35 Therefore it seems quite possible that she would not have been able to face another person so closely linked to her by the same major problem. It is interesting, too, that both women had lived for the majority of their lives only a few kilometres away from their real fathers. Helene dwelt just across the park from the Schonbrunn Palace - and Albine, whilst in Modling, lived just across the same park from Alban Berg, in Hietzing. Albine Wittula died in 1954, from lung cancer, in a rehabilitation hospital near Graz and was buried alongside her mother in the cemetery in Modling - a few kilometres from Alban and Helene's grave in the Hietzing cemetery. She was fifty-two years old, and a non-smoker36 (her lung weakness was apparently of the inherited type). Alban Berg would not have wanted his natural daughter to suffer further for his sake - that was not his way. His wife, though, believed that her duty was to focus on the promotion of her late husband's music - the harshness of this fact conveys the trauma of the times these people lived through. In the summer of 2001, the Alban Berg Stiftung (the organisation founded by the composer's widow to carry on his legacy) allowed Helga Wittula to visit Berg's Waldhaus in Carin- thia, a place of recondite beauty, which was never seen by Albine; yet it will be 2004 before they take over the care of Albine's and Marie's joint grave.37 I N his letter to Marie, Berg passionately declared the need to kiss and hold his little daughter in his arms, a need that was denied to him, and if Marie had any doubt about his love of the child, he acknowledged her as his own 'flesh and blood', his 'other self'. 'Fleisch und Blut' is the only phrase found in both Wozzeck and Lulu38 - a fact that seems in keeping with the com- poser's style and that effectively represents his emo- tion towards his daughter Albine and the nostalgie de boue he felt for his youthful days with Marie.


 

 

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GLI SCRITTORI di Alban Berg dedicano solo una battuta o due, se non del tutto, alla sua figlia naturale, Albine, e a sua madre, Marie Scheuchl. Tra le recenti discussioni biografiche, ad esempio, Douglas Jarman non cita nemmeno Albine per nome", mentre in un'indagine più approfondita di David Schroeder i due sono menzionati solo in passaggio.2 Credo, tuttavia, che sia Albine che Marie fossero di primaria importanza per il lavoro creativo di Berg. All'età di diciassette anni, Alban Berg ebbe una figlia illegittima, Albine, nata il 4 dicembre 1902.3 Il concepimento sarebbe avvenuto, quindi, nel marzo 1902, poco dopo il compleanno di Berg, e probabilmente coincise con le festività pasquali. La madre di Albine era una cameriera da cucina, Marie Scheuchl, che lavorava al 'Berg- hof', la residenza estiva della famiglia Berg dell'Ossiachersee in Carinzia. C'è una fotografia, datata all'inizio del 1900, di Marie che serve la famiglia Berg a tavola, insieme al padre di Alban, Konrad Berg, che morì più tardi nello stesso anno.4 Nei resoconti finora pubblicato si presume che fosse vicina all'età di Alban. In effetti, aveva trentadue anni, una quindicina di anni più grande e quindi quasi il doppio della sua età. Prova di ciò si trova sulla sua lapide nel Sudwestfriedhof, Hervicusgasse 44, Vienna 12. La sua iscrizione indica che nacque nel 1870 e morì nel 1945 (fig.l). Le mie comunicazioni con la sua parente Frau Helga Wittula rivelano che Marie era di semplice magazzino, molto premurosa e sempre aperta ad aiutare gli altri.5 Dalla corrispondenza di Berg a lei, sembra anche aver conosciuto il suo luogo sociale e quindi ha mantenuto la conoscenza della gravidanza per se stessa fino a tardi, apparentemente mai nemmeno turbata Berg. Marie era amichevole con Alban dal 1900, ma man mano che invecchiava la natura dell'amicizia cambiò in quella degli amanti. Si incontrarono nella sua stanza quando la famiglia era via ai concerti nella vicina città di Klagenfurt.6 Era il momento del risveglio sessuale di Berg e anche se potrebbe aver avuto l'opportunità di assaggiare le delizie della "susse Madel" viennese (giovani donne delle classi socialmente più basse che si associavano ai maschi borghesi prima che fossero avviati matrimoni di alto livello) così come le prostitute di Acknowledgment il quartiere Graben della città interna di Vienna , desidero ringraziare la famiglia Wittula sembra eminentemente fattibile che i suoi incontri con Linz per la loro Marie rappresentarono la prima piena intimità di Berg con una gentile assistenza. Donna. Si diceva che Smaragda e Charly Berg, sorella e fratello di Alban, fossero gli unici membri della sua famiglia a conoscere la gravidanza7, ma sua madre, Johanna Berg, quasi certamente sapeva dell'andare avanti tra la coppia e chiuse gli occhi ad essa. Vedova dal 1900, avrebbe senza dubbio accolto le maniere borghesi del giorno che permettevano l'iniziazione dei figli da parte di ragazze servite. Janet Naude ritiene che la nascita del bambino abbia colpito Berg per il resto della sua vita8,8 e esiste in stampa una lettera di Berg a Marie, che rivestono le turbolenze emotive causate dalla gravidanza.9 Nella tipica mimetica bergiana di una cartolina anonima indirizzata a un numero di ufficio postale, è un documento di drammatica importanza , perché mostra il fiorente talento letterario del giovane compositore incapsato nel narcisismo e nell'ingenuità della gioventù. Il testo, che trasmette una forte sensibilità alla difficile situazione di Marie unita alla necessità di rispettare i più della propria classe, testimonia le prime inclinazioni di Berg verso l'atteggiamento multistrato verso la vita che in seguito informò la composizione della sua musica. È interessante notare, tuttavia, che non è fino a quando un postscriptum che discute di questioni giudiziarie e mediche che riconosce un coinvolgimento continuo con suo figlio. Berg riconosce anche nella lettera il fatto che quando le condizioni di Marie divennero evidenti cercò di coprirlo e subì un grande disagio fisico, sperando quindi senza dubbio di porre fine alle sue avversità in un aborto spontaneo. Alla fine fu confinata lontano dal 'Berghof' nella sua casa di famiglia a Linz, e poi ricoverata in ospedale a Vienna per la nascita. Berg non posseedette fino a più di un anno dopo, ma in una lettera firmata datata 8 dicembre 1903 ammise la paternità e riconociò le sue responsabilità nei confronti del bambino.10 Frau Helga Wittula, tuttavia, non è sostanzialmente d'accordo con la dichiarazione in un recente documentario della BBC su Berg che Alban aiutò Marie con un aiuto regolare. Secondo il mentore di Berg, Watznauer, la storia d'amore e la concezione del figlio di Berg trovarono l'espressione musicale da lui abbastanza presto, nelle Quattro Canzoni op.2, con 'Wo der Goldregen steht' che rappresenta una tenera canzone d'amore per la coppia, e 'Lied des Schiffesmadels' e 'Abschied' in piedi per la loro agonizzante separazione.l2 Il bambino, che Berg ha soprannominato 'Little Bin- chen' , è stato collocato in un orfanotrofio di stato tra il 1902 e il 1906 , fino all'età di quattro anni. Questi eventi devono aver gravato pesantemente sulle sue giovani spalle, abbastanza da cambiare il suo atteggiamento verso la vita in generale e seminare i semi della sua futura arte. Senza dubbio hanno contribuito alla sua convinzione - comunemente diffusa - che la moderna società industriale stava erodendo la nostra umanità. In effetti, si potrebbe sostenere che il primo tentativo libero di amore di Berg, con la serva Marie Scheuchl, fu in realtà il suo canto del cigno alla verità e alla naturalezza, e che in seguito inseguì per sempre il ritorno di questo sogno. Questo trauma alla fine portò frutti nella sua opera espressionista Wozzeck. Erich Kleiber, che diresse la prima esecuzione dell'opera allo Staatsoper di Berlino nel dicembre 1925, osservò a un giornalista del Wiener Journal: "Wozzech è scritto con tutto il cuore e l'anima di un uomo. Musica del genere deve solo essere per- formata.'13 Un'acquarelle, dipinta da Berg, del quattroenne Albine suggerisce che si tenne in contatto con Marie e Albine.14 Nel 1906 Marie sposò Karl Manninger, un produttore di pennelli. Riuscirono a districare il bambino dall'orfanotrofio e si diresse verso di lei. A questo punto, Berg si offrì di fornire loro un'attività ortofrutticola con i soldi che aveva ereditato, ma Marie aveva già rifiutato qualsiasi offerta di aiuto da lui, finanziaria o meno, e ancora una volta rifiutò, anche se la coppia aveva bisogno.15 È curioso notare, tuttavia, che la famiglia Manninger si trasferì a Modling, il 12 ° distretto di Vienna. , nel 1906. Allo stesso tempo, tra il 1905 e il 1907, Berg visse a Hietzinger Haupstrasse 6, Vienna 13, vicino al Park Hotel, nella casa di sua zia Julie Weidmann.16 Poi, dopo il suo matrimonio nel 1911, risiedette a Hietzing, sempre a pochi chilometri da Modling, attraverso il parco del Palazzo di Schonbrunn. Alban, Marie e Albine erano quindi in grado di incontrarsi.17 Sembra esserci una sorta di aspetto feudale qui, in cui il primo amore e figlio naturale di Berg ha continuato a convivere, nella sua sfera di esistenza, se non solo segretamente la famiglia Manninger, di scorta artigianale, era sempre povera, quindi la prima vita di Albine era di stile fondamentale: non c'erano fronzoli , come le lezioni di pianoforte che in seguito sentiva di amare. Era molto bella, con i capelli scuri, rosso-marrone fluivano, era di media altezza e dimensioni, e aveva una voce piacevole, con solo un accenno del gutturale su di esso. Per natura, era intelligente e sensibile. La somiglianza con suo padre si è approstata dall'adolescenza in poi ed è stata piuttosto notevole, come mostrano le fotografie (fig.2). Rimase un'unica figlia e, all'età di vent'anni, sposò Walter Wittula, figlio della scrittrice folk austriaca Anna Wittula. La coppia condivideva un grande interesse per la musica, la letteratura e tutte le arti. Walter era un ispettore sulla ferrovia austriaca, e Albine lavorò prima come bibliotecario a Perchtoldsdorf e poi come segretario della scrittrice Maria Grengg a Vienna. Questo è stato molto fortunato per lei, perché le ha permesso di coinvolgersi nelle questioni artistiche che finora le erano state negate e per le quali aveva una decisa inclinazione. All'opera si trasferì nell'ambiente degli scrittori austriaci Wolfgang Schneiderhan, Josef Weinheber, Mirko Jelusich, Franz Karl Ginzkey e Ingeborg Teuffenbach. Privatamente, dipinse acquerelli e aveva anche un interesse per la scultura. A causa della sua bella struttura ossea, si sedette per la "Muttergottesstatue" di Hans Domenig, una scultura di Madonna col Bambino.18 Walter e Albine non ebbero figli propri e vissero insieme a Graz e a Vienna. Madre e figlia si sono tenute in contatto, come mostra una fotografia meravigliata di loro (fig.3). Questo fu nei primi anni '40, quando Marie aveva sette anni e Albine sulla quaranta. Marie morì nel 1945 alla fine della guerra. T il primo incontro tra padre e figlia in età adulta avvenne a metà degli anni '20. Il resoconto di questo incontro è stato collegato dalla governante di Berg, Anny Lenz, a Erich Alban Berg, il ne- phew del compositore.19 Si è svolto di fronte alla residenza Berg di Hietzing, dove Albine era in attesa di scattare una foto del compositore. Quando è uscito dalla sua porta d'ingresso, ha chiesto il suo permesso per una fotografica e un autografo. Berg, però, ha fatto notare che darli per strada era impraticabile e, con la moglie, Helene, via per una 'cura', l'ha invitata nell'appartamento - forse per evitare gli occhi indiscreti dei vicini. Una volta dentro, Albine rivelò la sua identità, dopo di che entrarono nello studio di Berg e parlarono a lungo. Berg chiese ad Anny Lenz la più stretta discrezione sull'incontro, poiché non voleva turbare sua moglie. (Apparentemente, il compositore aveva un modo caratteristico di trattare con bambini e giovani.) Albine improvvisamente lo chiamò padre, e si abbracciarono. Anny Lenz intervenne a questo punto per dire che Berg non era dato a sentimenti paterni, il che fece arrabbiare il com- poser, che le disse di badare ai propri affari e tacere - mettendola così al suo posto come serva. (Questo probabilmente spiega perché ha raccontato la storia in questo modo.) Berg deve essere stato molto felice di aver avuto una ragazza così bella ma, su una nota più scura, la possibilità di ricatto potrebbe anche aver gli attraversato la mente. Questa giovane donna appare sulla scena all'inizio della sua fama potrebbe non solo aver compromesso il suo matrimonio, ma anche lo sviluppo della sua carriera. Anche così, si sviluppò un legame tra i due, e nella corrispondenza personale del compositore presso la Biblioteca Nazionale Austriaca ci sono ripetute note a sua figlia.20 Un'indicazione certa che Albine era anche associato alla cerchia interna di Berg può essere de-dotti da una fotografia datami da Helga Wittula, scattata nel terreno di 'Casa Mahler', la casa veneziana di Alma Mahler-Werfel.21 La fotografia (fig.4) fu scattata dal marito Walter nel 1930.22 Per Walter e Albine aver frequentato la casa di qualcuno di tale importanza per Berg evidenzia ancora una volta un legame più intimo e progressista tra padre e duaghter

W HE N Wozzeck fu presentato per la prima volta il 23 marzo 1930 al Teatro dell'Opera di Stato di Vienna, il compositore ordinò al suo allievo Julius Schloss di ottenere un biglietto per la galleria, al prezzo di due scellini, per sua figlia. Il contenuto dell'opera rivela una verità sul potere della Natura che lo stesso compositore temeva. Il suo concetto nietzscheano rispecchia la difficile situazione della figlia minore di Alban che, innocente come il bambino orfano alla fine dell'opera, ha dovuto vivere nelle raccapriccianti cure dello Stato per i primi quattro anni della sua vita. Credo che i sensi di colpa non lascino mai Berg e, a causa del suo matrimonio senza figli, si riflettono nel suo continuo interesse per l'estetica femminile di Peter Altenberg. Dopo il suo matrimonio, Marie e Albine avrebbero dovuto diventare ombre, ma scrivere Wozzeck permise a Berg di evitare la normale ipocrisia borghese e creare un mezzo di auto-cura emotiva. Con esso, ha inciso madre e figlia - e la cruda realtà della loro vita comune - per sempre negli annali della storia musicale, riequilibrando così le scale della giustizia al meglio delle sue capacità. Questo rinnovato contatto clandestino con sua figlia fornì probabilmente l'iniziativa per la sua contemporanea associazione con Hanna Fuchs- Robettin. Hanna avrebbe quindi rappresentato il suo amore paterno proibito e simboleggiato la restaurazione del suo orgoglio maschile. Un ulteriore sostegno a questa nozione può essere trovato nascosto tra le pagine del manoscritto di Lulu che il com-poser lasciò sulla sua scrivania nel suo appartamento di Hietzing quando fu portato al Rudolfspital in ambulanza nel dicembre 1935: una copia digitata della popolare canzone "Tea for two".23 I suoi testi contengono la frase "un ragazzo per te e una ragazza per me" (nota la "ragazza per me"). Quando Berg la incontrò per la prima volta, Hanna Fuchs ebbe una figlia di tre-quattro anni di nome Dorothea, e sembra abbastanza plausibile che Berg, nella florescenza della sua mente poetica, avrebbe visto questo bambino come un riflesso del suo "Piccolo Binchen" - che a sua volta aveva quattro anni quando dipinse la sua foto nel 1906. La famiglia Fuchs- Robettin godette anche del tipo di vita che Berg avrebbe voluto per la sua Albine. Scrittori come George Perle o Mosco Carner fanno capitali dalle corrispondenze alfabetiche all'interno della sua musica alle iniziali di altre persone nella sua vita, ma non fanno alcun riferimento alla prevalenza, in tutte le battute finali di ogni atto di Wozzeck, delle note corrispondenti alle iniziali di Albine A ed Eb (denotate in tedesco dalla lettera S) (vedi ad esempio la terza e la quarta parte del flauto nell'atto 3 , Scena 5, barre 389-92]. Né menzionano il fatto che i "quinti desideriosi" di Marie (A ed E) corrispondono alla prima e all'ultima lettera del nome di Albine (vedi Atto 1, Scena 3, barre 412-16). I N 1935, nella sua casa estiva, il Waldhaus, Berg scrisse il suo ultimo lavoro completato, il Concerto per violino, e sebbene fosse dedi- cated a Manon Gropius (la figlia di Alma Mahler-Werfel) la sua inclusione della canzone popolare carin- thian 'Ein Vogel auf'm Zwetschgen- baum' suggerisce che avrebbe voluto che ci fosse un forte riferimento a Marie Scheuchl, la sua relazione con lei , e la concezione della loro figlia.24 Il verso allude a "dormire troppo nel letto di Mizzi'25 (Mizzi era il nome di animale domestico sia di Manon che di Marie), quindi il posizionamento di un tale trouve objet nell'opera era più provocatorio di quanto si supponesse. Così facendo, il compositore ha potuto godere di una risata postuma al mondo - non ironica e nera, o straziante ed emotiva, come hanno sup- proposto dai precedenti commentatori,26 ma abbondante e allegria, intimando che il sesso e la procreazione erano ciò che contava davvero e che la morte era solo una cosa ovvia. Berg sembra dire che le regole borghesi della mediocrità, dell'ordine e dell'evitare l'imbarazzo sminuire la forza vitale, l'ordine naturale delle cose, e implica palesemente attraverso questa canzone popolare che il momento migliore della sua vita è stato durante il rapporto giovane e spensierato con Marie che ha prodotto sua figlia Albine; che non è mai stato più libero che in quel fare l'amore, dopo di che la vita borghese è venuto giù duro su di lui. Secondo l'amico e allievo TW Adorno, "non ha mai veramente conosciuto la beatitudine della sessualità come l'ha immaginata" (27), ma con le sue prime esperienze con Marie, bisogna seriamente dubitare della natura precisa di questa osservazione. I molti "affari d'amore" del compositore, tra cui quello con Hanna Fuchs, erano quindi solo manovre per tenere a bada la propria insicurezza, specialmente quando ha dovuto incontrare il mondo post-Wozzech, con le sue aspettative di composizioni sempre migliori dalla sua stessa penna. La massima che l'unica cosa peggiore che non ottenere ciò che vuoi è ottenere ciò che vuoi sicuramente si applica qui. Nella vita di Berg, l'introversione, l'asma e altre malattie avevano aperto la strada alla poesia, al dramma e alla musica, ma tutto era davvero un desiderio per le gioie dell'adolescente iniziale romp con Marie. Tuttavia, il suo matrimonio con Helene Nahowski-Berg, fornì una coesione che apprezzò, perché credeva in lui e nella sua grandezza. Alla fine della sua vita il compositore cercò di riaccendere questa fiamma con il suo 'ultimo amore',28 il diciassettenne Anny Askenase29 (una situazione simile a quella di August Strindberg e al suo amore alla fine della sua vita per il suo diciassettenne protetto del teatro Fanny Falkner). L'affetto più profondo emerge nella sua musica, tuttavia, perché è degno di nota il fatto che la 'canzone popolare carinzia' nel Concerto per violino avvenga prima nella chiave di Bb (denotata in tedesco dalla lettera B per Berg) (a I, bar 214), ma al suo ritorno in Eb (S per Scheuchl) (a II, bar 201). Quest'ultimo passaggio (a II, bar 214) si risolve su un accordo di A7 - che denota Albine. Gli ingrossamenti OMPUTER di fotografi del funerale del compositore rivelano Albine Wittula in piedi accanto ad Hanna Fuchs in prima fila tra i lutti.30 Helene Berg era assente a causa del suo stato crollato. La figura angosciante della sepoltura portò alla sconforto l'incontro tra Albine ed Elena. Fino a quel momento, i due erano stati separati dalla circostanza di Alban Berg, il compositore, sotto le spoglie di un diplomatico. Dopo i funerali del 28 dicembre si s ebbe luogo un incontro nell'appartamento Berg di Hietzing: i presenti erano Ignaz Franzoy, assistente generale di Frau Berg, la vedova Berg e Frau Albine Wittula. O per angoscia o riluttanza, o una miscela di entrambi, Elena rimase relativamente insensibile e in diso meno dalla figlia naturale di suo marito. Chiese ad Albine se voleva soldi; l'ans-wer era negativo. Albine, tuttavia, chiese se Frau Berg si fosse preso cura di suo padre correttamente, alludendo alla sorpresa che tutti provavano per la morte prematura del com- poser (Soma Morgenstern ne discute dal suo punto di vista nell'Anhang delle sue memorie).31 L'incontro terminò con Ignaz Franzoy che mostrava la giovane donna alla porta.32 Da allora in poi, il naturale daugh- ter di Alban Berg rimase estraneo a lui; i suoi parenti sostengono che fu trattata male.33 Potrebbe esserci stata una ragione più personale per il distanziamento di Albine da parte di Helene Berg, tuttavia, perché entrambi avevano qualcosa in comune. Entrambi erano illegittimi. Helene Berg era la figlia illegittima dell'imperatore Francesco Giuseppe34, un fatto che trovò difficile ospitare nella sua vita.35 Pertanto sembra del tutto possibile che non sarebbe stata in grado di affrontare un'altra persona così strettamente legata a lei dallo stesso grande problema. È anche interessante notare che entrambe le donne avevano vissuto per la maggior parte della loro vita a pochi chilometri di distanza dai loro veri padri. Helene abitava proprio di fronte al parco dal Palazzo di Schonbrunn - e Albine, mentre era a Modling, viveva proprio di fronte allo stesso parco da Alban Berg, a Hietzing. Albine Wittula morì nel 1954, per un cancro ai polmoni, in un ospedale di riabilitazione vicino a Graz e fu sepolta accanto a sua madre nel cimitero di Modling - a pochi chilometri dalla tomba di Alban ed Helene nel cimitero di Hietzing. Aveva cinquantadue anni e non fumava36 (la sua debolezza polmonare era apparentemente del tipo ereditato). Alban Berg non avrebbe voluto che sua figlia naturale soffrisse ulteriormente per il suo bene - non era così. Sua moglie, tuttavia, credeva che il suo dovere fosse quello di concentrarsi sulla promozione della musica del suo defunto marito - la durezza di questo fatto trasmette il trauma dei tempi che queste persone hanno vissuto. Nell'estate del 2001, l'Alban Berg Stiftung (l'organizzazione fondata dalla vedova del compositore per portare avanti la sua eredità) permise a Helga Wittula di visitare il Waldhaus di Berg a Carin- thia, un luogo di bellezza recondita, che non fu mai visto da Albine; ma sarà il 2004 prima che si prendano cura della tomba congiunta di Albine e Marie.37 I N la sua lettera a Marie, Berg dichiarò appassionatamente la necessità di baciare e tenere in braccio la sua bambina, un bisogno che gli fu negato, e se Marie avesse qualche dubbio sul suo amore per il bambino, la riconobbe come la sua "carne e sangue" , il suo "sé altro". 'Fleisch und Blut' è l'unica frase trovata sia in Wozzeck che in Lulu38 - un fatto che sembra in linea con lo stile del com- poser e che rappresenta effettivamente la sua emo- zione verso sua figlia Albine e la nostalgie de boue che ha sentito per i suoi giorni giovanili con Marie.


 

 

Eccellente, sono senza parole! :o Credo possa bastare! Interessantissimo, dunque era sposata e lavorava degnamente. Berg, però, con lei si comportò sempre come un piccolo borghese austro-ungarico.

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Liszt Piano Concertos No. 1 & 2 Katchen - London Philharmonic Orchestra Argenta

Ottoni graffianti, gran bel disco.

Proseguo con uno dei miei pianisti preferiti, in Beethoven il mio personale riferimento:

71UEioRrokL._AC_SL1200_.jpg

a chi gradisce

p.s. qualcuno ha avuto modo di ascoltare il Mendelsshon di Litton? C'è un box che racchiude tutte le sinfonie, sinfonie per arco e pezzi concertanti dell'autore che mi interesserebbe, ovvero:

4928329-origpic-1dfce8.jpg

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On 26/2/2021 at 18:13, Snorlax dice:

Ahahahah, ora non esageriamo!:a1 Più che altro è l'unica esecuzione in mio possesso, ora devo andare in avanscoperta con i vostri suggerimenti. And now, for something completely different:

Giuseppe Verdi, Te Deum, Robert Shaw Chorale, NBC Symphony Orchestra, Arturo Toscanini

R-12352028-1533503891-7332.jpeg.jpg

...a @Wittelsbach, @Ives, @superburp, @Pinkerton, @Madiel e a chi gradisce...

 

Grazie Snorlax.

Questo Requiem, per la precisione e il vigore orchestrale nonché per la straordinaria tensione emotiva , è  probabilmente l'incisione di riferimento.

 

 

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F.J.Haydn, Concerto per tromba.

Esecuzione su strumenti d'epoca, inclusa la "tromba a chiavi": tecnologicamente presto superata dai moderni strumenti "a pistoni", ma possiamo apprezzare uno dei primissimi tentativi di superare la vecchia, esclusivamente diatonica tromba "naturale".

A quanti debba controdediche.

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:axehead:

mai capito perchè Nyman tende a portare le voci verso i registri acuti, con un banale effetto di accumulo. Questo procedimento si trova quasi ovunque nella sua musica. Nel pezzo in questione trovo brutte alquanto sia le sonorità nasali che il continuo oscillare tra il finto barocco e il pop da pubblicità televisiva. Di un kitsch terribile! Eh, se non c'era quel genio di Greenway a valorizzarlo... 

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